Soeharto resigned as president on May 21, 1998. His position was replaced by Abdurrahman Wahid (Gus Dur) who was elected president on October 20, 1999 by the Assembly election results 1999. By shaking for 2 months and 7 days as vice president, and 1 year and 5 months as president, Habibie is also the Vice President and the President of Indonesia with the shortest tenure.
Family and education
Habibie was the fourth child of eight children, couples Alwi Abdul Jalil Habibie and RA Tuti Marini Puspowardojo. Alwi Abdul Jalil Habibie was born on August 17, 1908 in Gorontalo and RA Tuti Marini Puspowardojo born 10 November 1911 in Yogyakarta. Mother R.A. Tuti Marini Puspowardojo is the son of an eye specialist in Yogya, and his father who named Puspowardjojo served as a school owner. B.J. Habibie was one child of seven brothers.
B.J. Hasri Ainun Habibie Besari married on May 12, 1962, and had two sons, namely Ilham Akbar and Thareq Kemal.
Previously he had been knowledgeable in SMAK Dago. He studied mechanical engineering at the Bandung Institute of Technology in 1954. In the 1955-1965 he continued his studies aerospace engineering, aircraft construction specialties, at RWTH Aachen, West Germany, received his Diplom Ingenieur in 1960 and doctorate in 1965 Ingenieur with summa cum laude.
Jobs and careers
Habibie had worked at Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm, an aviation company based in Hamburg, Germany, to reach the peak of his career as a vice president of technology. In 1973, he returned to Indonesia at the request of former president Suharto.
He later served as Minister of State for Research and Technology since 1978 until March 1998. Before becoming President (May 21, 1998-20 Oktober 1999), BJ Habibie was Vice President (March 14, 1998 - May 21 1998) in Development Cabinet under President Soeharto.
He was appointed chairman of ICMI (Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals Association), in his tenure as minister.
Habibie inherited the chaotic conditions after the resignation of Suharto in the new order, giving rise to widespread unrest and disintegerasi almost all regions of Indonesia. Soon after gaining power of President Habibie quickly assembled a cabinet. One important task is re-gain the support of the International Monetary Fund and the community of donor countries for the economic recovery program. He also freed political prisoners and easing controls on freedom of expression and activities of the organization.
In the era of his short reign he managed to provide a firm foundation for Indonesian, born in the era Anti-Monopoly Law or Unfair Competition Law, Law on Political Parties and the change is most important is regional autonomy law. Through the implementation of regional autonomy laws disintergrasi turmoil that is inherited from the New Order era and eventually completed successfully suppressed in the era of President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, in the absence of regional autonomy legislation can be sure Indonesia will experience the same fate as the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia.
Appointment B.J. President Habibie as cause various controversies for the Indonesian people. Parties consider the appointment of pro Habibie was constitutional. This was in accordance with the provisions of Article 8 UUD 1945 which states that "if the President die, resign, or can not perform its obligations under his tenure, he was replaced by Vice-President until the end time". While the counter party considers that the appointment of BJ Habibie was unconstitutional. This is contrary to the provisions of Article 9 UUD 1945 which states that "before the president took office the president must take an oath or pledge in front of the Assembly or the House of Representatives".
The steps undertaken BJ Habibie in politics is:
Giving freedom to the aspirations of the people for so many emerging new political parties that as many as 48 political parties
Freeing political prisoners (detainees) as Sri Bintang Pamungkas (former member of Parliament who went to jail for criticizing President Soeharto) and Muchtar Pakpahan (labor leader who was sentenced for allegedly sparked riots in Medan in 1994)
Lifted the ban on the establishment of independent trade unions
Forming three democratic legislation, namely:
Law. 2 in 1999 on Political Parties
Law. 3 of 1999 on General Elections
Law. 4 of 1999 on the Status Structure DPR / MPR
MPR decree set 12 and there were 4 provisions reflect the responses of the demands for reform are:
MPR Decree No.. VIII/MPR/1998, Tap No. of revocation. IV/MPR/1983 tentangReferendum
MPR Decree No.. XVIII/MPR/1998, on MPR Decree No. revocation. II/MPR/1978 of Pancasila as the sole principle
MPR Decree No.. XII/MPR/1998, on MPR Decree No. revocation. V/MPR/1978 about President a mandate from the Assembly to have the rights and policy beyond the statutory limits
MPR Decree No.. XIII/MPR/1998, Restriction of the term of office of President and Vice President only a maximum of two terms.
12 MPR Decree include:
MPR Decree No.. X/MPR/1998, on the main points of reform and development in order to rescue the normalization of national life as state policy
MPR Decree No.. XI/MPR/1998, on the administration of the country is clean and free of corruption, collusion, and nepotism
MPR Decree No.. XIII/MPR/1998, about presidential term limits and vice president of the Republic of Indonesia
MPR Decree No.. XV/MPR/1998, concerning the implementation of regional autonomy
MPR Decree No.. XVI/MPR/1998, about economic policy in the context of economic democracy
MPR Decree No.. XVII/MPR/1998, on Human Rights (HAM)
MPR Decree No.. VII/MPR/1998, about the changes and the addition of MPR Decree No.. I/MPR/1998 about disciplinary rules MPR
MPR Decree No.. XIV/MPR/1998, on the General Election
MPR Decree No.. III/V/MPR/1998, about the referendum
MPR Decree No.. IX/MPR/1998, of the Guidelines
MPR Decree No.. XII/MPR/1998, regarding the provision of special duties and powers to the President / MPR mandatory in order to succeed and safeguarding national development as the Pancasila
MPR Decree No.. XVIII/MPR/1998, on revocation Guidelines appreciation and practice of Pancasila (P4)
In the economic field, he managed to cut the value of the rupiah against the dollar still ranged between Rp 10,000 - Rp 15,000. But at the end of his reign, especially after the Assembly rejected accountability, the exchange rate rocketed up to Rp 6,500 per U.S. dollar value will never be reached again in the next era. In addition, he also began to implement the independence of Bank Indonesia to be more focus on taking care of the economy. To resolve the financial crisis and economic recovery of Indonesia, BJ Habibie perform the following steps:
Restructuring and banking recapitulation through the establishment of IBRA and the State Asset Management unit
Liquidate some troubled banks
Raise the value of the rupiah against the dollar to below Rp. 10,000.00
Form a monitoring agency and the foreign debt problem resolution
Required implement economic reform IMF
Passed Law. 5 of 1999 concerning Prohibition of Monopolistic Practices and Unfair Competition
Passed Law. 8 of 1999 on Consumer Protection
One of the mistakes that assessed the largest opposition party after serving as President, BJ Habibie to allow a referendum province of East Timor (now Timor Leste), he filed a public thing is quite shocking at the time, which conducted a poll for the people of East Timor for independence or remain part of Indonesia. At the time of his presidency, East Timor separated from the Republic of Indonesia and being apart of a sovereign state on August 30, 1999. The liberation of East Timor on the one hand was the chagrin of the majority of Indonesian citizens, but on the other cleaning Indonesian names are often tainted by allegations of human rights abuses in East Timor.
Case is what prompted opposition parties are not satisfied with the background more as dropping Habibie Habibie. This effort finally got it done at the General Assembly in 1999, he decided not to run again after his accountability report was rejected by the Assembly.
View of the Habibie government at the beginning of the reform era tended to be negative, but in line with the time many positive assess the Habibie government. False positive outlook was raised by L. Misbah Hidayat In his book Administrative Reform: Comparative Analysis Three Presidential Administration.
"The vision, mission and leadership of President Habibie in carrying out the reform agenda can not be separated from his life experiences. Any decision taken based on factors that can be measured. So do not be surprised by the measures taken sometimes makes people shocked and do not understand. Even some people think Habibie apolitical and unfeeling. Habibie leadership patterns as it is understandable considering his educational background as a doctorate in the field of aircraft construction. In connection with the spirit of democratization, Habibie has made changes by building transparent governance and dialogue. Democratic principles are also applied in economic policy with law enforcement and devoted to the welfare of the people. In managing day-to-haripun cabinet, Habibie make big changes. He improved coordination and remove egosentisme sekotral antarmenteri. In addition a number of leadership styles Habibie coloring creativity in addressing the nation's problems. To address the economic problems, for example, he raised the entrepreneur as special envoy. And the entrepreneurs themselves who bear the costs. The task is very important, because one of the weaknesses of the government is less to explain the real state of Indonesia in the international community. Meanwhile the press, especially the foreign press, impressed only expose the negative news about Indonesia so out of balance in the news. "
After he stepped down as president, he has more to live in Germany than in Indonesia. But when the era of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono presidency, he re-active as an advisor to the president to oversee the process of democratization in Indonesia through the organization he founded Habibie Center.
Proceedings of the International Symposium on Aeronautical Science and Technology of Indonesia / B. J. Habibie; B. Laschka. Indonesian Institute of Aeronautical and Astronautical; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Luft-und Raumfahrt 1986
Berechnungsmethode eine zum Voraussagen des Fortschritts Rissen von und unter beliebigen Belastungen Vergleiche mit entsprechenden Versuchsergebnissen, Presentation at the Symposium DGLR in Baden-Baden ,11-13 October 1971
Beitrag zur Temperaturbeanspruchung der orthotropen Kragscheibe, Dissertation at RWTH Aachen, 1965
Sophisticated technologies: taking root in developing countries, International journal of technology management: IJTM. - Geneva-Aeroport: Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, 1990
Einführung in die Methode Elementen finite, Teil 1, Hamburger Flugzeugbau GmbH, 1968
Verfahrens zur Entwicklung eines Bestimmung des Rißfortschritts in Schalenstrukturen, Hamburger Flugzeugbau GmbH, Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm GmbH, 1970
Berechnungsverfahrens zur Entwicklung eines der Rißfortschrittsgeschwindigkeit Bestimmung an A1-Legierungen Schalenstrukturen aus und Titanium, Hamburger Flugzeugbau GmbH, Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm GmbH, 1969
Determining Which Seconds - Indonesian Long Road to Democracy, 2006 (the memoirs of the events of 1998)
Habibie and Ainun Habibie Center The Independent, 2009 (memory on Ainun Habibie)
Hosen, Nadirsyah, Indonesian political laws in Habibie Era: Between political struggle and law reform,, Nordic journal of international law, ISSN 0029-151x, Bd. 72 (2003), 4, p. 483-518
Rice, Robert Charles, Indonesian approaches to technology policy during the Soeharto era: Habibie, Sumitro and others, Indonesian economic development (1990), p. 53-66
Makka, Makmur.A, The True Life of HABIBIE Story Behind Success, FAITH LITERATURE, ISBN 978-979-3371-83-2, 2008